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OFDE02: Government aid to developing countries, million US$ and percent of GNI, by reporting country, flow and time

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Official Development Assistance (ODA): ODA is defined as those flows to developing countries and multilateral institutions provided by official agencies, including state and local governments, or by their executive agencies, each transaction of which meets the following tests: i) it is administered with the promotion of the economic development and welfare of developing countries as its main objective, and ii) it is concessional in character and conveys a grant element of at least 25 percent. Prior to 2018, the ODA flows basis methodology covered loans expressed on a 'cash basis', meaning their full face value was included, then repayments were subtracted as they came in. From 2018, the ODA grant-equivalent methodology is used whereby only the 'grant portion' of the loan, i.e. the amount 'given' by lending below market rates, counts as ODA. This indicator is measured as a percentage of gross national income. Gross national income, abbreviated as GNI, is the sum of incomes of residents of an economy in a given period. It is equal to GDP minus primary income payable by resident units to non-resident units, plus primary income receivable from the rest of the world. Figures can deviate from national figures since OECD counts committed amounts at the time of issue and not actually drawn amounts at the end of the year. The breakdown in multi- and bilateral flow can also deviate from national figures as administration and combined multi/bilatereal flows are counted as bilateral flows at the OECD.